\( \newcommand{\abs}[1]{\left| \, {#1} \, \right| } \)
\( \newcommand{\vhat}[1]{\,\hat{#1}} \) \( \newcommand{\vhati}{\,\hat{i}} \) \( \newcommand{\vhatj}{\,\hat{j}} \) \( \newcommand{\vhatk}{\,\hat{k}} \) \( \newcommand{\vect}[1]{\boldsymbol{\vec{#1}}} \) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\|{#1}\|} \)

You CAN Ace Calculus

Topics You Need To Understand For This Page

Related Topics and Links

external links you may find helpful

vectors youtube playlist

Wikipedia: Unit Vector

17Calculus Subjects Listed Alphabetically

Single Variable Calculus

Multi-Variable Calculus

Differential Equations

Search Practice Problems

Do you have a practice problem number but do not know on which page it is found? If so, enter the number below and click 'page' to go to the page on which it is found or click 'practice' to be taken to the practice problem.

Unit vectors are defined as vectors whose length is exactly one. This means you can use a unit vector to define direction and then assign a length to the vector to get a unique vector.

The Standard Unit Vectors

There are three standard unit vectors listed in the table below and shown in the figure.

source Wikipedia

The Three Standard Unit Vectors

Vector

Definition

\(\hat{i}\)

the unit vector in the direction of the x-axis

\(\hat{j}\)

the unit vector in the direction of the y-axis

\(\hat{k}\)

the unit vector in the direction of the z-axis

Every vector in 3-dim space can be described as a linear combination of these three standard unit vectors. You will almost always see the same letters ('i', 'j' and 'k') used to indicate the standard unit vectors. However, you may see them written either as bold letters or with an 'arrow' instead of 'hat', i.e. \( \hat{i} = \vec{i} \).
Note - We recently ran across a book that used a little different notation. This book used \(\hat{x}\), \(\hat{y}\) and \(\hat{z}\). Also, some books use the 'hat' notation to always indicate unit vectors.

You now have two ways to describe a vector, \( \vec{v} = \langle v_1, v_2, v_3 \rangle \) or the same vector can be written \( \vec{v} = v_1 \hat{i} + v_2 \hat{j} + v_3 \hat{k} \).

Okay, so let's watch a video explaining this in more detail. He goes through an example and explains this whole idea of the standard unit vectors as he works it.

Khan Academy - standard unit vectors [9mins-53secs]

video by Khan Academy

Finding a Unit Vector in a Specific Direction

If you have a vector, let's call it \(\vec{v}\), and you want to find a unit vector in the same direction as \(\vec{v}\), you just multiply the vector by the scalar \( 1/ \norm{\vec{v}} \). Said another way, you divide the vector by its length. This gives you the unit vector, \(\vec{u}\), in the same direction as vector \(\vec{v}\).
This is written as \(\displaystyle{ \vec{u} = \frac{\vec{v}}{\norm{\vec{v}}} }\).

You will often see a \(\vec{u}\) used to define a unit vector but not always. So make sure to check the context to determine exactly what is meant and keep track of unit vectors. They are important to vector calculus.

Okay, time for some practice problems.
After that, your next topic is the dot product.

next: dot product →

Practice

Conversion Between A-B-C Level (or 1-2-3) and New Numbered Practice Problems

Please note that with this new version of 17calculus, the practice problems have been relabeled but they are MOSTLY in the same order. So, Practice A01 (1) is probably the first basic practice problem, A02 (2) is probably the second basic practice problem, etc. Practice B01 is probably the first intermediate practice problem and so on.

GOT IT. THANKS!

Find the unit vector in the direction of \(\langle 3,4 \rangle\).

Problem Statement

Find the unit vector in the direction of \(\langle 3,4 \rangle\).

Solution

1233 solution video

video by PatrickJMT

close solution

Find the unit vector in the direction of \(\vec{w}=\langle 1/2,1/8 \rangle\).

Problem Statement

Find the unit vector in the direction of \(\vec{w}=\langle 1/2,1/8 \rangle\).

Solution

1234 solution video

video by PatrickJMT

close solution

Find the unit vector in the direction of \(\vec{w}=\langle 0,5 \rangle\).

Problem Statement

Find the unit vector in the direction of \(\vec{w}=\langle 0,5 \rangle\).

Solution

1235 solution video

video by PatrickJMT

close solution

Calculate \( \vec{a} + \vec{b} \) for \( \vec{a} = -3\hat{i} + 2\hat{j} \), \( \vec{b} = 2\hat{i} + 4\hat{j} \).

Problem Statement

Calculate \( \vec{a} + \vec{b} \) for \( \vec{a} = -3\hat{i} + 2\hat{j} \), \( \vec{b} = 2\hat{i} + 4\hat{j} \).

Solution

1236 solution video

video by Khan Academy

close solution
Real Time Web Analytics