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You CAN Ace Calculus

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Single Variable Calculus

Multi-Variable Calculus

Differential Equations

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This page combines formulas found on other pages including basic identities, derivatives and integrals for trig and inverse trig functions. We also include some trig reduction formulas used for trig integration.

Basic Trig Identities

Set 1 - basic identities

\(\displaystyle{ \tan(t) = \frac{\sin(t)}{\cos(t)} }\)

\(\displaystyle{ \cot(t) = \frac{\cos(t)}{\sin(t)} }\)

\(\displaystyle{ \sec(t) = \frac{1}{\cos(t)} }\)

\(\displaystyle{ \csc(t) = \frac{1}{\sin(t)} }\)

Set 2 - squared identities

\( \sin^2t + \cos^2t = 1\)

\( 1 + \tan^2t = \sec^2t\)

\( 1 + \cot^2t = \csc^2t\)

Set 3 - double-angle formulas

\( \sin(2t) = 2\sin(t)\cos(t)\)

\(\displaystyle{ \cos(2t) = \cos^2(t) - \sin^2(t) }\)

Set 4 - half-angle formulas

\(\displaystyle{ \sin^2(t) = \frac{1-\cos(2t)}{2} }\)

\(\displaystyle{ \cos^2(t) = \frac{1+\cos(2t)}{2} }\)

Trig Derivatives

\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\sin(t)]}{dt} = \cos(t) }\)

 

\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\cos(t)]}{dt} = -\sin(t) }\)

\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\tan(t)]}{dt} = \sec^2(t) }\)

 

\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\cot(t)]}{dt} = -\csc^2(t) }\)

\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\sec(t)]}{dt} = \sec(t)\tan(t) }\)

 

\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\csc(t)]}{dt} = -\csc(t)\cot(t) }\)

Trig Integrals

\(\int{\sin(x)~dx} = -\cos(x)+C\)

 

\(\int{\cos(x)~dx} = \sin(x)+C\)

\(\int{\tan(x)~dx} = -\ln\abs{\cos(x)}+C\)

 

\(\int{\cot(x)~dx} = \ln\abs{\sin(x)}+C\)

\(\int{\sec(x)~dx} = \ln\abs{\sec(x)+\tan(x)}+C\)

 

\(\int{\csc(x)~dx} = -\ln\abs{\csc(x)+\cot(x)}+C\)

Sine and Cosine Reduction Formulas (where n is a positive integer)

\(\displaystyle{\int{\sin^n x~dx} = -\frac{\sin^{n-1}x\cos x}{n}+\frac{n-1}{n}\int{\sin^{n-2}x~dx}}\)

\(\displaystyle{\int{\cos^n x~dx} = \frac{\cos^{n-1}x\sin x}{n} + \frac{n-1}{n}\int{\cos^{n-2}x~dx}}\)

Secant and Tangent Reduction Formulas (n is an integer and \(n>1\))

\(\displaystyle{\int{\tan^n x~dx}= \frac{\tan^{n-1}x}{n-1} - \int{\tan^{n-2}x~dx}}\)

\(\displaystyle{\int{\sec^n x~dx} = \frac{\sec^{n-2}x\tan x}{n-1}+\frac{n-2}{n-1}\int{\sec^{n-2}x~dx}}\)

Inverse Trig Derivatives

\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arcsin(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{1-t^2}} }\)

 

\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arccos(t)]}{dt} = -\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-t^2}} }\)

\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arctan(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{1+t^2} }\)

 

\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arccot(t)]}{dt} = -\frac{1}{1+t^2} }\)

\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arcsec(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{\abs{t}\sqrt{t^2 -1}} }\)

 

\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arccsc(t)]}{dt} = -\frac{1}{\abs{t}\sqrt{t^2 -1}} }\)

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