Recommended Books on Amazon (affiliate links)  

Join Amazon Student  FREE TwoDay Shipping for College Students 
What Are Exponential Functions? 

Exponentials are very similar to polynomials and are easily confused. Check out the next two examples.
\(f(x)=x^2\) 
\(g(x)=2^x\)  
exponential 
The polynomial you should be familiar with. Notice that the difference between a polynomial and an exponential is where the variable is, in the base or in the exponent. In the base, we have a polynomial, in the exponent, we have an exponential function.
In general, an exponential function is written \(f(x) = Ca^x\) where a is a positive real number (\(a \gt 0\)) and \(a \neq 1 \) and C is a real number.
a is called the growth factor
C is called the initial value since \(f(0) = Ca^0 = C\)
Remember these laws of exponents? These also hold for exponential functions.
1. 
\(a^s \cdot a^t = a^{s+t}\) 
2. 
\((a^s)^t = a^{st}\) 
3. 
\( (ab)^s = a^s \cdot b^s \) 
4. 
\( 1^s = 1 \) 
5. 
\(\displaystyle{ a^{s} = \frac{1}{a^s} = \left[ \frac{1}{a} \right]^s }\) 
6. 
\( a^0 = 1 \) since \(a\neq0\) 
7. 
if \(a^u = a^v\) then \(u=v\) 
Also remember that \((a+b)^s \neq a^s + b^s\). An example of this is \((a+b)^2 = a^2 +2ab + b^2 \neq a^2 + b^2\).
Before we go on, here is a good video that shows several examples so that you can get a feel for exponential functions.
video by PatrickJMT 

Notice we are calling \(g(x)=a^x\) a function. The use of the word 'function' is deliberate since exponentials pass the vertical line test. Let's look at a few exponential functions. We will draw them on the same graph so that we can compare them.
In plot 1 below, notice that all of the exponential functions have the same general shape and that they all go through the point \((0,1)\). This makes sense, since \(2^0=3^0=4^0=1\). This shape holds for exponential functions \(y=a^x\) where \(a>1\).
Now take a careful look at plot 2. Notice that the exponential functions are still in the form \(y=a^x\) but in these cases \(0 < a < 1\). Said another way, \(a > 1\) and \(y=(1/a)^x\). And said still another way, \(a > 1\) and \(y=a^{x}\).
Again, all plots go through the point \((0,1)\) and they all have the same general shape.
When comparing the two plots, notice that they are flipped with respect to the yaxis. These are the kind of things you need to look at and think about in calculus when you are given a graph.
plot 1: \(\color{red}{y=2^x}\); \(\color{blue}{y=3^x}\); \(\color{green}{y=4^x}\) 

plot 2: \(\color{red}{y=(1/2)^x}\); \(\color{blue}{y=(1/3)^x}\); \(\color{green}{y=(1/4)^x}\) 

Study Tip 

When given alternate ways of describing an equation like we have done here, focus on the one that makes most sense to you and then determine the relationship between the one you chose and the other ones. Learning more than one at time can be overwhelming and an unnecessary waste of your time and mental energy. 
Okay, let's watch a video clip that explains this in more detail.
video by MIP4U 

Time for some practice problems.
Practice
Unless otherwise instructed, graph these exponential functions.
Sketch the graph of \( y=2^x \) and find the domain and range.
Problem Statement 

Sketch the graph of \( y=2^x \) and find the domain and range.
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Sketch the graph of \(y=(1/3)^x \) and find the domain and range.
Problem Statement 

Sketch the graph of \(y=(1/3)^x \) and find the domain and range.
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Sketch the graph of \( y = 3^{x2} + 1 \) and find the domain and range.
Problem Statement 

Sketch the graph of \( y = 3^{x2} + 1 \) and find the domain and range.
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Sketch the graph of \( y= 5  2^{3x} \) and find the domain and range.
Problem Statement 

Sketch the graph of \( y= 5  2^{3x} \) and find the domain and range.
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Unless otherwise instructed, graph the exponential function \(y=2^x+1\).
Problem Statement 

Unless otherwise instructed, graph the exponential function \(y=2^x+1\).
Solution 

video by PatrickJMT 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Unless otherwise instructed, graph the exponential function \(y=3^{x}2\).
Problem Statement 

Unless otherwise instructed, graph the exponential function \(y=3^{x}2\).
Solution 

video by PatrickJMT 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Unless otherwise instructed, graph the exponential function \(y=3(1/2)^x\).
Problem Statement 

Unless otherwise instructed, graph the exponential function \(y=3(1/2)^x\).
Solution 

video by PatrickJMT 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Unless otherwise instructed, graph the exponential function \(y=3^x1\).
Problem Statement 

Unless otherwise instructed, graph the exponential function \(y=3^x1\).
Solution 

video by PatrickJMT 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Determine the equation of this transformed exponential function.
Problem Statement 

Determine the equation of this transformed exponential function.
Solution 

video by MIP4U 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Unless otherwise instructed, graph the exponential function \(y=5^x\).
Problem Statement 

Unless otherwise instructed, graph the exponential function \(y=5^x\).
Solution 

video by Khan Academy 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Special Exponential Function 

There is a special exponential function that is used extensively in calculus, \(f(x)=e^x\). The number \(e \approx 2.7183\) is a special irrational number. (You need calculus to understand where it comes from.) Since \(e > 1\), the graph looks like plot 1 above.
Solving Exponential Equations 

In order to get a feel for working with exponential functions, you may be asked to solve exponential functions. The first technique does not require the knowledge of logarithms. This next video contains an explanation how to do this followed by lots of examples.
video by MIP4U 

Practice
Solve these exponential functions.
Solve \( 3^{x+2} = 9^{2x3} \)
Problem Statement 

Solve \( 3^{x+2} = 9^{2x3} \)
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Solve \( 8^{4x12} = 16^{5x3} \)
Problem Statement 

Solve \( 8^{4x12} = 16^{5x3} \)
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Solve \( 27^{3x2} = 81^{2x+7} \)
Problem Statement 

Solve \( 27^{3x2} = 81^{2x+7} \)
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Solve \( 3^x = 8 \)
Problem Statement 

Solve \( 3^x = 8 \)
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Solve \( e^x = 7 \)
Problem Statement 

Solve \( e^x = 7 \)
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Solve \( 5 + 4^{x2} = 23 \)
Problem Statement 

Solve \( 5 + 4^{x2} = 23 \)
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Solve \( 3 + 2e^{3x} = 7 \)
Problem Statement 

Solve \( 3 + 2e^{3x} = 7 \)
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Solve \( 3^{x^2+4x} = 1/27 \)
Problem Statement 

Solve \( 3^{x^2+4x} = 1/27 \)
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Solve \( 2^{x^2} \cdot 2^{3x} = 16 \)
Problem Statement 

Solve \( 2^{x^2} \cdot 2^{3x} = 16 \)
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Solve \( 4^{2x}  20 \cdot 4^x+ 64 = 0 \)
Problem Statement 

Solve \( 4^{2x}  20 \cdot 4^x+ 64 = 0 \)
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Solve \( 3^{2x}  3^{2x1} = 18 \)
Problem Statement 

Solve \( 3^{2x}  3^{2x1} = 18 \)
Solution 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Unless otherwise instructed, solve the exponential function \(3^{2x+5}=9^{3x7}\).
Problem Statement 

Unless otherwise instructed, solve the exponential function \(3^{2x+5}=9^{3x7}\).
Solution 

video by MIP4U 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Unless otherwise instructed, solve the exponential function \( \displaystyle{ \frac{1}{27}=9^{5x7} }\).
Problem Statement 

Unless otherwise instructed, solve the exponential function \( \displaystyle{ \frac{1}{27}=9^{5x7} }\).
Solution 

video by PatrickJMT 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Unless otherwise instructed, solve the exponential function \( \displaystyle{ \left(\frac{1}{4}\right)^{2x+1}=64 }\).
Problem Statement 

Unless otherwise instructed, solve the exponential function \( \displaystyle{ \left(\frac{1}{4}\right)^{2x+1}=64 }\).
Solution 

video by MIP4U 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Unless otherwise instructed, solve the exponential function \(3^x + 2\cdot 3^{x+1} = 21\).
Problem Statement 

Unless otherwise instructed, solve the exponential function \(3^x + 2\cdot 3^{x+1} = 21\).
Solution 

video by Dr Chris Tisdell 

close solution

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating. 

Rules of Exponents  Review 

Here are some videos to help you review rules of exponents. These videos also contain plenty of examples.
video by PatrickJMT 

video by MIP4U 

Next 

Exponentials are very closely related to logarithms. So, after working the practice problems on this page, your next logical step is logarithms. After that, we will discuss how to use exponentials and logarithms together and then solve some application problems.
Here is a playlist of the videos on this page.
Really UNDERSTAND Precalculus
The Unit Circle
The Unit Circle [wikipedia]
Basic Trig Identities
Set 1  basic identities  

\(\displaystyle{ \tan(t) = \frac{\sin(t)}{\cos(t)} }\) 
\(\displaystyle{ \cot(t) = \frac{\cos(t)}{\sin(t)} }\) 
\(\displaystyle{ \sec(t) = \frac{1}{\cos(t)} }\) 
\(\displaystyle{ \csc(t) = \frac{1}{\sin(t)} }\) 
Set 2  squared identities  

\( \sin^2t + \cos^2t = 1\) 
\( 1 + \tan^2t = \sec^2t\) 
\( 1 + \cot^2t = \csc^2t\) 
Set 3  doubleangle formulas  

\( \sin(2t) = 2\sin(t)\cos(t)\) 
\(\displaystyle{ \cos(2t) = \cos^2(t)  \sin^2(t) }\) 
Set 4  halfangle formulas  

\(\displaystyle{ \sin^2(t) = \frac{1\cos(2t)}{2} }\) 
\(\displaystyle{ \cos^2(t) = \frac{1+\cos(2t)}{2} }\) 
Trig Derivatives
\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\sin(t)]}{dt} = \cos(t) }\) 
\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\cos(t)]}{dt} = \sin(t) }\)  
\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\tan(t)]}{dt} = \sec^2(t) }\) 
\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\cot(t)]}{dt} = \csc^2(t) }\)  
\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\sec(t)]}{dt} = \sec(t)\tan(t) }\) 
\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\csc(t)]}{dt} = \csc(t)\cot(t) }\) 
Inverse Trig Derivatives
\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arcsin(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{1t^2}} }\) 
\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arccos(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{1t^2}} }\)  
\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arctan(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{1+t^2} }\) 
\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arccot(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{1+t^2} }\)  
\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arcsec(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{\abs{t}\sqrt{t^2 1}} }\) 
\(\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arccsc(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{\abs{t}\sqrt{t^2 1}} }\) 
Trig Integrals
\(\int{\sin(x)~dx} = \cos(x)+C\) 
\(\int{\cos(x)~dx} = \sin(x)+C\)  
\(\int{\tan(x)~dx} = \ln\abs{\cos(x)}+C\) 
\(\int{\cot(x)~dx} = \ln\abs{\sin(x)}+C\)  
\(\int{\sec(x)~dx} = \) \( \ln\abs{\sec(x)+\tan(x)}+C\) 
\(\int{\csc(x)~dx} = \) \( \ln\abs{\csc(x)+\cot(x)}+C\) 
To bookmark this page and practice problems, log in to your account or set up a free account.
Do you have a practice problem number but do not know on which page it is found? If so, enter the number below and click 'page' to go to the page on which it is found or click 'practice' to be taken to the practice problem.
 
free ideas to save on bags & supplies 

The 17Calculus and 17Precalculus iOS and Android apps are no longer available for download. If you are still using a previously downloaded app, your app will be available until the end of 2020, after which the information may no longer be available. However, do not despair. All the information (and more) is now available on 17calculus.com for free. 