## 17Calculus Integrals - Area Under Curves

Area Under A Curve

To find the area under a curve that is above the x-axis, you just need to integrate the curve between two specific points. This is a natural idea from definite integrals. Here are a couple of videos explaining this.

### rootmath - Intro to Area Under a Curve [4min-28secs]

video by rootmath

### rootmath - Exact Area Under A Curve [9min-55secs]

video by rootmath

Okay, to really understand this idea, let's work these practice problems.

Practice

Unless otherwise instructed, calculate the area under these curves, between the two points, if given.

$$y=x^2$$; $$[0,4]$$

Problem Statement

Calculate the area under the curve $$y=x^2$$ on the interval $$[0,4]$$.

Solution

### 2114 video

video by Michel vanBiezen

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating.

$$y=x^3$$; $$[1,3]$$

Problem Statement

Calculate the area under the curve $$y=x^3$$ on the interval $$[1,3]$$.

Solution

### 2115 video

video by Michel vanBiezen

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating.

$$y=1/x^2$$; $$[1,4]$$

Problem Statement

Calculate the area under the curve $$y=1/x^2$$ on the interval $$[1,4]$$.

Solution

### 2117 video

video by Michel vanBiezen

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating.

$$y=\sin x$$; $$[0,\pi]$$

Problem Statement

Calculate the area under the curve $$y=\sin x$$ on the interval $$[0,\pi]$$.

Solution

### 2118 video

video by Michel vanBiezen

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating.

$$y=x^2-2x+8$$; $$[1,2]$$

Problem Statement

Calculate the area under the curve $$y=x^2-2x+8$$ on the interval $$[1,2]$$.

Solution

### 2116 video

video by Michel vanBiezen

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating.

$$y=\sin x \cos x$$; $$[\pi/4, \pi/2]$$

Problem Statement

Calculate the area under the curve $$y=\sin x \cos x$$ on the interval $$[\pi/4, \pi/2]$$.

Solution

### 2119 video

video by Michel vanBiezen

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating.

$$\displaystyle{ y = \frac{x^2}{\sqrt{x^3+9}} }$$; $$[-1,1]$$

Problem Statement

Calculate the area under the curve $$\displaystyle{ y = \frac{x^2}{\sqrt{x^3+9}} }$$ on the interval $$[-1,1]$$.

Solution

### 2120 video

video by Michel vanBiezen

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating.

When Area Under The Curve is Zero or Negative

Logically, area should always be positive. However, there will be times when you work the problem correctly and you end up with a negative number. What's the deal?

That's easy. When the area is below the x-axis, the area will turn out to be negative. So it is not that we have negative area. The sign tells us where MOST of the area is, above the x-axis for positive area or below the x-axis for negative area.

It is also possible to get zero for the area. This occurs when the area above the x-axis has exactly the same area as the area below the x-axis.

Here is a good video explaining in more detail why the area is negative. He uses an example and explains this very well.

### Section 5.3 - Integrals and Negative Area [5min-21secs]

From this discussion, you now understand why knowing what the graphs look like is so important. Let's work these practice problems.

Practice

Unless otherwise instructed, calculate the area under these curves, between the two points, if given. Some of these will have negative or zero area. Make sure you understand why.

$$y = 60x - 6x^2$$; $$0 \leq x \leq 15$$

Problem Statement

Calculate the area under the curve $$y = 60x - 6x^2$$ on the interval $$0 \leq x \leq 15$$. The area may be negative or zero. Make sure you understand why.

Solution

### 2433 video

video by Michel vanBiezen

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating.

$$y=x^2-6x$$; $$[1,3]$$

Problem Statement

Calculate the area under the curve $$y=x^2-6x$$ on the interval $$[1,3]$$. The area may be negative or zero. Make sure you understand why.

$$-46/3$$

Problem Statement

Calculate the area under the curve $$y=x^2-6x$$ on the interval $$[1,3]$$. The area may be negative or zero. Make sure you understand why.

Solution

### 2434 video

$$-46/3$$

Log in to rate this practice problem and to see it's current rating.

You CAN Ace Calculus

 integration definite integrals

related topics on other pages

For discussion of area under a parametric curve, see the parametric calculus page.

For discussion of area under a polar curve, see the polar calculus page.

### Trig Formulas

The Unit Circle

The Unit Circle [wikipedia] Basic Trig Identities

Set 1 - basic identities

$$\displaystyle{ \tan(t) = \frac{\sin(t)}{\cos(t)} }$$

$$\displaystyle{ \cot(t) = \frac{\cos(t)}{\sin(t)} }$$

$$\displaystyle{ \sec(t) = \frac{1}{\cos(t)} }$$

$$\displaystyle{ \csc(t) = \frac{1}{\sin(t)} }$$

Set 2 - squared identities

$$\sin^2t + \cos^2t = 1$$

$$1 + \tan^2t = \sec^2t$$

$$1 + \cot^2t = \csc^2t$$

Set 3 - double-angle formulas

$$\sin(2t) = 2\sin(t)\cos(t)$$

$$\displaystyle{ \cos(2t) = \cos^2(t) - \sin^2(t) }$$

Set 4 - half-angle formulas

$$\displaystyle{ \sin^2(t) = \frac{1-\cos(2t)}{2} }$$

$$\displaystyle{ \cos^2(t) = \frac{1+\cos(2t)}{2} }$$

Trig Derivatives

 $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\sin(t)]}{dt} = \cos(t) }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\cos(t)]}{dt} = -\sin(t) }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\tan(t)]}{dt} = \sec^2(t) }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\cot(t)]}{dt} = -\csc^2(t) }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\sec(t)]}{dt} = \sec(t)\tan(t) }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\csc(t)]}{dt} = -\csc(t)\cot(t) }$$

Inverse Trig Derivatives

 $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arcsin(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{1-t^2}} }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arccos(t)]}{dt} = -\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-t^2}} }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arctan(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{1+t^2} }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arccot(t)]}{dt} = -\frac{1}{1+t^2} }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arcsec(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{\abs{t}\sqrt{t^2 -1}} }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arccsc(t)]}{dt} = -\frac{1}{\abs{t}\sqrt{t^2 -1}} }$$

Trig Integrals

 $$\int{\sin(x)~dx} = -\cos(x)+C$$ $$\int{\cos(x)~dx} = \sin(x)+C$$ $$\int{\tan(x)~dx} = -\ln\abs{\cos(x)}+C$$ $$\int{\cot(x)~dx} = \ln\abs{\sin(x)}+C$$ $$\int{\sec(x)~dx} =$$ $$\ln\abs{\sec(x)+\tan(x)}+C$$ $$\int{\csc(x)~dx} =$$ $$-\ln\abs{\csc(x)+\cot(x)}+C$$

### Search Practice Problems

Do you have a practice problem number but do not know on which page it is found? If so, enter the number below and click 'page' to go to the page on which it is found or click 'practice' to be taken to the practice problem.

 The 17Calculus and 17Precalculus iOS and Android apps are no longer available for download. If you are still using a previously downloaded app, your app will be available until the end of 2020, after which the information may no longer be available. However, do not despair. All the information (and more) is now available on 17calculus.com for free.

How to Read and Do Proofs: An Introduction to Mathematical Thought Processes Under Armour Clothing - Just Launched at eBags.com! Try Amazon Music Unlimited Free Trial As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.

When using the material on this site, check with your instructor to see what they require. Their requirements come first, so make sure your notation and work follow their specifications.

DISCLAIMER - 17Calculus owners and contributors are not responsible for how the material, videos, practice problems, exams, links or anything on this site are used or how they affect the grades or projects of any individual or organization. We have worked, to the best of our ability, to ensure accurate and correct information on each page and solutions to practice problems and exams. However, we do not guarantee 100% accuracy. It is each individual's responsibility to verify correctness and to determine what different instructors and organizations expect. How each person chooses to use the material on this site is up to that person as well as the responsibility for how it impacts grades, projects and understanding of calculus, math or any other subject. In short, use this site wisely by questioning and verifying everything. If you see something that is incorrect, contact us right away so that we can correct it.