## 17Calculus Infinite Series - Root Test

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In our experience, the Root Test is the least used series test to test for convergence or divergence (which is why it appears last in the infinite series table). The reason is that it is used only in very specific cases, whereas the other tests can be used for a broader range of problems. However, for those specific cases, it can be much easier to use than other techniques to determine convergence or divergence.

Root Test

For the series $$\sum{a_n}$$, let $$\displaystyle{L = \lim_{n \to \infty}{\sqrt[n]{|a_n|}}}$$.

Three cases are possible depending on the value of $$L$$.
$$L < 1$$: The series converges absolutely.
$$L = 1$$: The Root Test is inconclusive.
$$L> 1$$: The series diverges.

When To Use The Root Test

The Root Test is used when you have a function of n that also contains a power with an n. The idea is to remove or change the n in the power. The test itself is fairly straight-forward. You just need some practice using it to know under what conditions it is best to use it. One good way to learn when to use this test is by building example pages as described in the Study Techniques section.
Here is a good introduction video.

### slcmath@pc - The Root Test - Introduction

video by slcmath@pc

A powerful rule that will be useful when using the root test is $\lim_{n \to \infty}{\ln(f(n))} = \ln\left( \lim_{n \to \infty}{f(n)} \right)$ This is true because the natural log function is continuous. Here are a few additional rules that may be useful.

 $$\displaystyle{ \lim_{n \to \infty}{ \sqrt[n]{p}} = 1 }$$ $$p$$ is a positive constant $$\displaystyle{ \lim_{n \to \infty}{\sqrt[n]{n^p}} = 1 }$$ $$p$$ is a positive constant $$\displaystyle{ \lim_{n \to \infty}{\sqrt[n]{n}} = 1 }$$ special case of previous line with $$p=1$$ $$\displaystyle{ \lim_{n \to \infty}{\sqrt[n]{\ln~n}} = 1 }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \lim_{n \to \infty}{\sqrt[n]{n!}} = \infty }$$

We prove the first four rules above as practice problems on the L'Hôpital's Rule page. The last one can be proven using Stirlings Formula.

Another helpful formula that sometimes comes up when working these problems is $$\displaystyle{ \lim_{n \to \infty}{ (1+1/n)^n} = e }$$. We prove a similar limit on the L'Hopitals Rule page.

Root Test Proof

Here are some videos showing the proof of the Root Test. You do not need to watch these in order to use and understand the Root Test. They are included here for those of you who are interested.

### slcmath@pc - The Root Test - Proof of Part (a)

video by slcmath@pc

### slcmath@pc - The Root Test - Proof of Part (b)

video by slcmath@pc

### slcmath@pc - The Root Test - Proof of Part (c)

video by slcmath@pc

Practice

Unless otherwise instructed, determine whether these series converge or diverge. Use the Root Test, if possible.

Basic

$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{1}{4^n} } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{1}{4^n} } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3240 video

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{3+5n}{2+3n} \right]^n } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{3+5n}{2+3n} \right]^n } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3241 video

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[\frac{n^2+1}{2n^2+1}\right]^n } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[\frac{n^2+1}{2n^2+1}\right]^n } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

The series converges by the root test.

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[\frac{n^2+1}{2n^2+1}\right]^n } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

Solution

### 264 video

video by Krista King Math

The series converges by the root test.

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{k+1}{2k} \right]^k } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{k+1}{2k} \right]^k } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3252 video

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{n^4}{3^n} } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{n^4}{3^n} } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3254 video

video by slcmath@pc

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{n+1}{2n-1} \right]^n } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{n+1}{2n-1} \right]^n } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3246 video

video by Trefor Bazett

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{(2n+1)^n}{n^{2n}} } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{(2n+1)^n}{n^{2n}} } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3248 video

video by blackpenredpen

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ 1 + \cos(2/n) \right]^n } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ 1 + \cos(2/n) \right]^n } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3256 video

video by slcmath@pc

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[3^n e^{-n}\right] } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[3^n e^{-n}\right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

The series diverges by the root test.

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[3^n e^{-n}\right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

Solution

### 267 video

video by PatrickJMT

The series diverges by the root test.

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{1}{n^2} + \frac{1}{n} \right]^n } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{1}{n^2} + \frac{1}{n} \right]^n } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3242 video

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{4n}{2n-1} \right]^{2n} } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{4n}{2n-1} \right]^{2n} } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3253 video

video by MIP4U

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}{ \left[\frac{3^k}{(k+1)^k}\right] } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}{ \left[\frac{3^k}{(k+1)^k}\right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

The series converges by the root test.

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}{ \left[\frac{3^k}{(k+1)^k}\right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

Solution

### 270 video

video by Krista King Math

The series converges by the root test.

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \sqrt[n]{2} -1 \right]^n } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \sqrt[n]{2} -1 \right]^n } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3249 video

video by blackpenredpen

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[\frac{4n^2+1}{5n^2-8}\right]^n } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[\frac{4n^2+1}{5n^2-8}\right]^n } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

The series converges by the root test.

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[\frac{4n^2+1}{5n^2-8}\right]^n } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

Solution

### 271 video

video by MIP4U

The series converges by the root test.

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{n^n}{2^{1+4n}} } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{n^n}{2^{1+4n}} } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3243 video

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{e^{3n}}{n^n} \right] } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{e^{3n}}{n^n} \right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

The series converges by the root test.

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{e^{3n}}{n^n} \right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

Solution

### 273 video

video by MIP4U

The series converges by the root test.

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{8^{n^2}}{n^n} } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{8^{n^2}}{n^n} } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3255 video

video by slcmath@pc

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{(-1)^n 3^{n+2}}{(n-1)^n} } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{(-1)^n 3^{n+2}}{(n-1)^n} } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3245 video

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Intermediate

$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{n}{2^n} } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \frac{n}{2^n} } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3244 video

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{n^n}{3^{1+3n}} \right] } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{n^n}{3^{1+3n}} \right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

The series diverges by the root test.

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{n^n}{3^{1+3n}} \right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

Solution

### 265 video

video by Krista King Math

The series diverges by the root test.

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{n}{n+1} \right]^{n^2} } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{n}{n+1} \right]^{n^2} } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

The series converges by the root test.

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{n}{n+1} \right]^{n^2} } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

Solution

### 266 video

video by Krista King Math

The series converges by the root test.

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ 1 - \frac{1}{n} \right]^{n^2} } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ 1 - \frac{1}{n} \right]^{n^2} } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3247 video

video by blackpenredpen

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ 1 + \frac{1}{n} \right]^{n^2} } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ 1 + \frac{1}{n} \right]^{n^2} } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3250 video

video by blackpenredpen

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{(-1)^n(n^n)}{3^{n^3+1}} \right] } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{(-1)^n(n^n)}{3^{n^3+1}} \right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

The series converges by the root test.

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{(-1)^n(n^n)}{3^{n^3+1}} \right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

Solution

### 268 video

video by PatrickJMT

The series converges by the root test.

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{\ln n}{2n} \right]^n } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{\ln n}{2n} \right]^n } }$$ converges or diverges using the Root Test.

Solution

### 3251 video

video by MIP4U

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{(-1)^n}{[\tan^{-1}(n)]^n} \right] } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{(-1)^n}{[\tan^{-1}(n)]^n} \right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

The series converges by the root test.

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{(-1)^n}{[\tan^{-1}(n)]^n} \right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

Solution

### 269 video

video by PatrickJMT

The series converges by the root test.

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$$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{n^{n-1}}{2^{3+n}} \right] } }$$

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{n^{n-1}}{2^{3+n}} \right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

The series diverges by the Root Test.

Problem Statement

Determine whether the series $$\displaystyle{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ \frac{n^{n-1}}{2^{3+n}} \right] } }$$ converges or diverges using the root test.

Solution

### 272 video

video by MIP4U

The series diverges by the Root Test.

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### root test 17calculus youtube playlist

You CAN Ace Calculus

 limits infinite limits l'hôpital's rule infinite series basics

Wikipedia - Root Test

### Trig Formulas

The Unit Circle

The Unit Circle [wikipedia] Basic Trig Identities

Set 1 - basic identities

$$\displaystyle{ \tan(t) = \frac{\sin(t)}{\cos(t)} }$$

$$\displaystyle{ \cot(t) = \frac{\cos(t)}{\sin(t)} }$$

$$\displaystyle{ \sec(t) = \frac{1}{\cos(t)} }$$

$$\displaystyle{ \csc(t) = \frac{1}{\sin(t)} }$$

Set 2 - squared identities

$$\sin^2t + \cos^2t = 1$$

$$1 + \tan^2t = \sec^2t$$

$$1 + \cot^2t = \csc^2t$$

Set 3 - double-angle formulas

$$\sin(2t) = 2\sin(t)\cos(t)$$

$$\displaystyle{ \cos(2t) = \cos^2(t) - \sin^2(t) }$$

Set 4 - half-angle formulas

$$\displaystyle{ \sin^2(t) = \frac{1-\cos(2t)}{2} }$$

$$\displaystyle{ \cos^2(t) = \frac{1+\cos(2t)}{2} }$$

Trig Derivatives

 $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\sin(t)]}{dt} = \cos(t) }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\cos(t)]}{dt} = -\sin(t) }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\tan(t)]}{dt} = \sec^2(t) }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\cot(t)]}{dt} = -\csc^2(t) }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\sec(t)]}{dt} = \sec(t)\tan(t) }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\csc(t)]}{dt} = -\csc(t)\cot(t) }$$

Inverse Trig Derivatives

 $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arcsin(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{1-t^2}} }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arccos(t)]}{dt} = -\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-t^2}} }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arctan(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{1+t^2} }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arccot(t)]}{dt} = -\frac{1}{1+t^2} }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arcsec(t)]}{dt} = \frac{1}{\abs{t}\sqrt{t^2 -1}} }$$ $$\displaystyle{ \frac{d[\arccsc(t)]}{dt} = -\frac{1}{\abs{t}\sqrt{t^2 -1}} }$$

Trig Integrals

 $$\int{\sin(x)~dx} = -\cos(x)+C$$ $$\int{\cos(x)~dx} = \sin(x)+C$$ $$\int{\tan(x)~dx} = -\ln\abs{\cos(x)}+C$$ $$\int{\cot(x)~dx} = \ln\abs{\sin(x)}+C$$ $$\int{\sec(x)~dx} =$$ $$\ln\abs{\sec(x)+\tan(x)}+C$$ $$\int{\csc(x)~dx} =$$ $$-\ln\abs{\csc(x)+\cot(x)}+C$$

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Engineering

Circuits

Semiconductors

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