You CAN Ace Differential Equations | |
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17calculus > differential equations > fourier series |
Topics You Need To Understand For This Page
precalculus - even and odd functions |
Differential Equations Alpha List
Tools
math tools |
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additional tools |
Related Topics and Links
external links you may find helpful |
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Fourier Series |
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This page covers two areas related to Fourier Series. First, we present an introduction to Fourier Series, then we discuss how to solve differential equations using Fourier Series. If you are just learning about Fourier Series, you can go through the introduction and practice problems and skip the section related to solving differential equations. |
What is a Fourier Series? |
The main idea of Fourier Series is that we want to build an infinite series, using the basic trig functions sine and cosine, that is equivalent to a more complicated function. The series can then be manipulated more easily than the original function.
Here is a great video to get you started. He explains why we need to build these functions, goes through an example and then explains the big picture.
Dr Chris Tisdell - building functions | |
How to Calculate Fourier Series |
As you saw in that video, there are some basic equations required to calculate the Fourier Series.
Fourier Series Equations | |||
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original function |
build a Fourier Series for a function \(f(t)\) with period \(2L\) |
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requirements of \(f(t)\) |
\(f(t)\) and it's derivative \(f'(t)\) must be piecewise continuous on the interval \([-L,L]\) |
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Fourier Series |
\(\displaystyle{ f(t) = a_0 + \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{ \left[ a_n \cos \frac{n \pi t}{L} + b_n \sin \frac{n \pi t}{L} \right] } }\) | ||
constants |
\(\displaystyle{ a_0 = \frac{1}{2L} \int_{-L}^{L}{f(t)~dt} }\) |
\(\displaystyle{ a_n = \frac{1}{L} \int_{-L}^{L}{f(t)\cos \frac{n\pi t}{L} ~dt} }\) |
\(\displaystyle{ b_n = \frac{1}{L} \int_{-L}^{L}{f(t)\sin \frac{n\pi t}{L} ~dt} }\) |
Knowing if the original \(f(t)\) is either even or odd can help us a lot when finding the Fourier Series. Of course, we do not require that \(f(t)\) be even or odd, but you remember from precalculus that cosine is an even function and sine is odd. So, for even functions \(b_n=0\) and for odd functions \(a_n=0\).
[ more discussion and practice problems on the way ]
Solving Differential Equations |
These videos show how to use Fourier Series to solve differential equations.
MIT OCW -Lec 15 | MIT 18.03 Differential Equations, Spring 2006 - Introduction to Fourier Series; Basic Formulas for Period 2(pi) | |
MIT OCW - Lec 16 | MIT 18.03 Differential Equations, Spring 2006 - Continuation: More General Periods; Even and Odd Functions; Periodic Extension | |
MIT OCW - Lec 17 | MIT 18.03 Differential Equations, Spring 2006 - Finding Particular Solutions via Fourier Series; Resonant Terms; Hearing Musical Sounds | |
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Practice Problems |
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Instructions - - Unless otherwise instructed, find the Fourier Series for these functions.
Level A - Basic |
Practice A01 | |
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\(\displaystyle{ f(t) = \left\{
\begin{array}{rr}
-1 & -\pi < t < 0 \\
0 & t = 0, \pm \pi \\
1 & 0 < t < \pi
\end{array} \right.
}\) | |
solution |
Practice A02 | |
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\(\displaystyle{f(x) = \left\{
\begin{array}{rr}
0 & -1 \leq x \leq 0 \\
1 & 0 < x < 1
\end{array} \right.
}\) | |
solution |
Practice A03 | |
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\(\displaystyle{ f(x) = \left\{
\begin{array}{rr}
-3 & -1 < x < 0 \\
3 & 0 < x < 1
\end{array} \right.
}\) | |
solution |