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OneSided Limits 

Onesided limits require a good understanding of piecewise functions. If you are a little rusty or just need a quick reminder, you can find a complete discussion of piecewise functions on the piecewise functions 17calculus precalculus page. 
Onesided limits are finite limits where we evaluate the limit from each side of a point individually. The notation we use is
\(\displaystyle{ \lim_{x \to a^}{f(x)} }\)  evaluate the limit on the left side of \(a\), i.e. values of \(x < a\) 
\(\displaystyle{ \lim_{x \to a^+}{f(x)} }\)  evaluate the limit on the right side of \(a\), i.e. values of \(x > a\) 
The negative and positive sign that look like exponents on the finite value \(a\) indicate the side that we are looking at.
One of the reasons we need to look at limits on both sides of some number is when we are determining continuity. As you know from the continuity page, one of the requirements for continuity is that the limit at a point must exist. In order for a limit to exist, the limit from the left must be equal to the limit from the right, i.e. \(\displaystyle{\lim_{x \to a^}{f(x)} = \lim_{x \to a^+}{f(x)}}\).
Notice that we are NOT saying that the function value must be equal to the limit or even that the function need be defined at \(x=a\), only that the limit be equal on both sides of a.
Here is a great video to build your intuition of onesided limits. He uses an absolute value function to discuss the idea of onesided limits and limits that do not exist.
Dr Chris Tisdell  Limit of a function  
Here is a good video showing a graph with several onesided limits.
Krista King Math  How to find limits on CRAZY GRAPHS [7min47secs]  
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Practice Problems 

Instructions   Unless otherwise instructed, evaluate the following limits. Give your answers in exact form.
Level A  Basic 
Practice A01  

\(\displaystyle{\lim_{x\to1}{\frac{\abs{x1}}{x1}}}\)  
solution 
Practice A02  

\(\displaystyle{\lim_{x\to0^}{\left(\frac{1}{x}\frac{1}{\abs{x}}\right)}}\)  
solution 
Practice A03  

\(\displaystyle{\lim_{x\to5^+}{\frac{6}{x5}}}\)  
solution 
Practice A04  

\(\displaystyle{\lim_{x\to0}{\frac{x1}{x^2(x+2)}}}\)  
solution 
Practice A05  

\(\displaystyle{\lim_{x\to4^}{\abs{x+4}}}\)  
solution 
Practice A06  

\(\displaystyle{\lim_{x\to5^+}{\sqrt{x^225}}}\)  
solution 
Practice A07  

\(\displaystyle{\lim_{x\to5^}{\sqrt{x(5x)}}}\)  
solution 
Practice A08  

\(\displaystyle{\lim_{x\to0}{1/x}}\)  
solution 
Practice A09  

\(\displaystyle{\lim_{x\to0}{1/x^2}}\)  
solution 
Level B  Intermediate 
Practice B01  

Evaluate \(\displaystyle{\lim_{x\to1}{f(x)}}\) for \(\displaystyle{f(x)=\left\{ \begin{array}{lr} x+3 & x \leq 1 \\ x^22x & x >1 \end{array}\right.}\)  
solution 
Practice B02  

Prove that the limit \(\displaystyle{\lim_{x\to0}{\frac{\abs{x}}{x}}}\) does not exist.  
solution 
Practice B03  

\(\displaystyle{\lim_{x\to0}{\frac{x2\abs{x}}{\abs{x}}}}\)  
solution 